Jordbær er sunt, med få kalorier!
juli 22, 2013 5 kommentarer
Jordbær og andre bær
Jordbær er sunt og godt. Bær og frukt er sommerens sunne skjønnhetsmatvarer, takket være det høye innholdet av vitamin C, som bl.a. er en kraftig antioksidant. Bær inneholder mindre sukker enn frukt, og er, i motsetning til frukt, spesielt populære i de ulike lavkarbodiettene.
Jordbær – kalorier og næringsinnhold
Jordbær inneholder kun 34 kcal per 100 gram jordbær. Dette høres kanskje litt for godt til å være sant, siden jordbær smaker så søtt og godt!
Jordbær er en av de beste kildene til vitamin C, med hele 69 mg vitamin C per 100 gram jordbær, dvs. 90 % av dagsbehovet for vitamin C. Den mørkerøde fargen til jordbærene betyr at jordbær er rike på antioksidanter.
Å spise jordbær og frukt gir en fysisk og psykisk tilfredstillelse og gjør at du har lettere for å spise mindre og for å få i deg mindre kalorier. Dette bidrar til å lettere gå ned i vekt.
Fruktsalat med jordbær
Fruktsalat, med jordbær, nøtter, mynte, is, soyais, fløte eller gresk yoghurt og ev. litt honning er en sunn og mettende dessert.
Å tilsette jordbær og frukt i salat er også sunt, friskt, godt og spennende.
Musli mer jordbær
Lag din egen musli, av havrekli, hvetekli, byggflak, hakkede mandler og valnøtter. Spis med hakkede mynteblader, jordbær og melk eller yoghurt. En god variasjon til meieriprodukter er soyamelk, soyayoghurt, mandelmelk og havremelk.
Les om de sunne frukt og grønnsaker
- Michael J. Orlich, MD1; Pramil N Singh, DrPH1; Joan Sabaté, MD, DrPH1,2; Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, DrPH1,2; Jing Fan, MS1; Synnove Knutsen, MD, PhD1,2; W. Lawrence Beeson, DrPH1; Gary E. Fraser, MBchB, PhD1,2: Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and Mortality in Adventist Health Study 2. JAMA Intern Med. 2013;173(13):1230-1238. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.6473.
Objective. To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality.
Design. Prospective cohort study; mortality analysis by Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders.
Setting. Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2), a large North American cohort.
Participants. A total of 96 469 Seventh-day Adventist men and women recruited between 2002 and 2007, from which an analytic sample of 73 308 participants remained after exclusions.
…Results. There were 2570 deaths among 73 308 participants during a mean follow-up time of 5.79 years. The mortality rate was 6.05 (95% CI, 5.82-6.29) deaths per 1000 person-years. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80-0.97). The adjusted HR for all-cause mortality in vegans was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.73-1.01); in lacto-ovo–vegetarians, 0.91 (95% CI, 0.82-1.00); in pesco-vegetarians, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69-0.94); and in semi-vegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.75-1.13) compared with nonvegetarians. Significant associations with vegetarian diets were detected for cardiovascular mortality, noncardiovascular noncancer mortality, renal mortality, and endocrine mortality. Associations in men were larger and more often significant than were those in women.Conclusions and Relevance. Vegetarian diets are associated with lower all-cause mortality and with some reductions in cause-specific mortality. Results appeared to be more robust in males. These favorable associations should be considered carefully by those offering dietary guidance.
The possible relationship between diet and mortality remains an important area of investigation. Previous studies have identified dietary factors associated with mortality. Those found to correlate with reduced mortality include nuts,1- 4 fruit,5,6 cereal fiber,2 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs),2 ω-3PUFAs,3 green salad,7 Mediterranean dietary patterns,8- 11 “healthy” or “prudent” dietary patterns,10,12,13 plant-based diet scores,14 plant-based low-carbohydrate diets,15 and vegetarian diets.4,16,17
Associations with increased mortality have been found for a high glycemic load,2 meat,6,7 red meat,18,19 processed meat,18,19 eggs,7 potatoes,5 increased energy intake,20 and animal-based low-carbohydrate diets.15
Overvekt, animalske og plantebaserte matvarer
- Sabate J, Wien M: Vegetarian diets and childhood obesity prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 2010, 91(5):1525S-1529S;
The increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is not unique to industrialized societies; dramatic increases are occurring in urbanized areas of developing countries. In light of the consensus that obesity is a significant public health concern and that many weight-loss interventions have been unsuccessful in the long term, an exploration of food patterns that are beneficial in the primary prevention of obesity is warranted. The focus of this article is to review the relation between vegetarian diets and obesity, particularly as they relate to childhood obesity.
Epidemiologic studies indicate that vegetarian diets are associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) and a lower prevalence of obesity in adults and children. A meta-analysis of adult vegetarian diet studies estimated a reduced weight difference of 7.6 kg for men and 3.3 kg for women, which resulted in a 2-point lower BMI (in kg/m2). Similarly, compared with nonvegetarians, vegetarian children are leaner, and their BMI difference becomes greater during adolescence.
Studies exploring the risk of overweight and food groups and dietary patterns indicate that a plant-based diet seems to be a sensible approach for the prevention of obesity in children. Plant-based diets are low in energy density and high in complex carbohydrate, fiber, and water, which may increase satiety and resting energy expenditure.
Plant-based dietary patterns should be encouraged for optimal health and environmental benefits. Food policies are warranted to support social marketing messages and to reduce the cultural and economic forces that make it difficult to promote plant-based dietary patterns.
- Fraser GE: Vegetarian diets: what do we know of their effects on common chronic diseases? Am J Clin Nutr 2009, 89(5):1607S-1612S;
Abstract A number of studies have evaluated the health of vegetarians. Others have studied the health effects of foods that are preferred or avoided by vegetarians. The purpose of this review is to look critically at the evidence on the health effects of vegetarian diets and to seek possible explanations where results appear to conflict.
There is convincing evidence that vegetarians have lower rates of coronary heart disease, largely explained by low LDL cholesterol, probable lower rates of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and lower prevalence of obesity.
Overall, their cancer rates appear to be moderately lower than others living in the same communities, and life expectancy appears to be greater. However, results for specific cancers are much less convincing and require more study. There is evidence that risk of colorectal cancer is lower in vegetarians and in those who eat less meat; however, results from British vegetarians presently disagree, and this needs explanation.
It is probable that using the label «vegetarian» as a dietary category is too broad and that our understanding will be served well by dividing vegetarians into more descriptive subtypes. Although vegetarian diets are healthful and are associated with lower risk of several chronic diseases, different types of vegetarians may not experience the same effects on health.
- Craig WJ: Health effects of vegan diets. Am J Clin Nutr 2009, 89(5):1627S-1633S;
Abstract Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease.
However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n–3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.
- Craig WJ, Mangels AR: Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets. J Am Diet Assoc 2009, 109(7):1266-1282;
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes. A vegetarian diet is defined as one that does not include meat (including fowl) or seafood, or products containing those foods. This article reviews the current data related to key nutrients for vegetarians including protein, n-3 fatty acids, iron, zinc, iodine, calcium, and vitamins D and B-12. A vegetarian diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients. In some cases, supplements or fortified foods can provide useful amounts of important nutrients. An evidence- based review showed that vegetarian diets can be nutritionally adequate in pregnancy and result in positive maternal and infant health outcomes. The results of an evidence-based review showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with a lower risk of death from ischemic heart disease. Vegetarians also appear to have lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure, and lower rates of hypertension and type 2 diabetes than nonvegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians tend to have a lower body mass index and lower overall cancer rates. Features of a vegetarian diet that may reduce risk of chronic disease include lower intakes of saturated fat and cholesterol and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, soy products, fiber, and phytochemicals. The variability of dietary practices among vegetarians makes individual assessment of dietary adequacy essential. In addition to assessing dietary adequacy, food and nutrition professionals can also play key roles in educating vegetarians about sources of specific nutrients, food purchase and preparation, and dietary modifications to meet their needs.
- 5) Dunham L, Kollar LM: Vegetarian eating for children and adolescents. J Pediatr Health Care 2006, 20(1):27-34;
During the past decade, vegetarianism has risen in popularity among American families. Well-planned vegetarian diets can satisfy the nutritional needs and promote normal growth of infants and children. Research has highlighted nutritional advantages to vegetarian diets and has indicated that this style of eating can lead to lifelong healthy eating habits when adopted at a young age. Several vitamins, minerals, and macronutrients may be deficient within a vegetarian diet. Careful nutrition assessment and counseling will allow nurse practitioners to play a key role in encouraging families to adopt healthy eating habits to assist in disease prevention.
- Nutrition concerns and health effects of vegetarian diets. 2010
Nutr Clin Pract. 2010 Dec;25(6):613-20. doi: 10.1177/0884533610385707.
Vegetarians exhibit a wide diversity of dietary practices, often described by what is omitted from their diet. When a vegetarian diet is appropriately planned and includes fortified foods, it can be nutritionally adequate for adults and children and can promote health and lower the risk of major chronic diseases. The nutrients of concern in the diet of vegetarians include vitamin B(12), vitamin D, ω-3 fatty acids, calcium, iron, and zinc. Although a vegetarian diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients, the use of supplements and fortified foods provides a useful shield against deficiency. A vegetarian diet usually provides a low intake of saturated fat and cholesterol and a high intake of dietary fiber and many health-promoting phytochemicals. This is achieved by an increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole-grains, legumes, nuts, and various soy products.
As a result of these factors, vegetarians typically have lower body mass index, serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and blood pressure; reduced rates of death from ischemic heart disease; and decreased incidence of hypertension, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers than do nonvegetarians.
- Davis BC, Kris-Etherton PM: Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 2003, 78(3 Suppl):640S-646S;
Although vegetarian diets are generally lower in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol than are nonvegetarian diets, they provide comparable levels of essential fatty acids. Vegetarian, especially vegan, diets are relatively low in α-linolenic acid (ALA) compared with linoleic acid (LA) and provide little, if any, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Clinical studies suggest that tissue levels of long-chain n−3 fatty acids are depressed in vegetarians, particularly in vegans. n−3 Fatty acids have numerous physiologic benefits, including potent cardioprotective effects. These effects have been demonstrated for ALA as well as EPA and DHA, although the response is generally less for ALA than for EPA and DHA. Conversion of ALA by the body to the more active longer-chain metabolites is inefficient: < 5–10% for EPA and 2–5% for DHA. Thus, total n−3 requirements may be higher for vegetarians than for nonvegetarians, as vegetarians must rely on conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA. Because of the beneficial effects of n−3 fatty acids, it is recommended that vegetarians make dietary changes to optimize n−3 fatty acid status.
Les hele studien http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/78/3/640S.full
- Sanders TA: Essential fatty acid requirements of vegetarians in pregnancy, lactation, and infancy. Am J Clin Nutr 1999, 70(3 Suppl):555S-559S;
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) derived from linoleic (18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic (18:3n-3) acids are required for the normal development of the retina and central nervous system, but the extent to which they can be synthesized from the parent fatty acids is debated. Consuming LCPUFAs markedly increases their proportions in tissue lipids compared with their parent fatty acids. Thus, it has been argued that LCPUFAs must be supplied in the diet. LCPUFAs are generally absent from plant foods, thus it is important find out how essential fatty acid requirements are met by vegetarians. A developing fetus obtains LCPUFAs via selective uptake from its mother’s plasma and LCPUFAs are present in the breast milk of vegetarians. There is no evidence that the capacity to synthesize LCPUFAs is limited in vegetarians. However, there are greater proportions of n-6 LCPUFAs and lower proportions of n-3 LCPUFAs in vegetarians compared with omnivores. This difference is probably a consequence of the selection of foods by vegetarians with high amounts of linoleic acid. Although lower concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) have been observed in blood and artery phospholipids of infants of vegetarians, it is uncertain whether their brain lipids contain lower proportions of DHA than do those of infants of omnivores. On the basis of experiments in primates that showed altered visual function with a high ratio of linoleic acid to alpha-linolenic acid, it would be prudent to recommend diets with a ratio between 4:1 and 10:1 in vegetarians and that excessive intakes of linoleic acid be avoided.
- Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, Armstrong WT, Ports TA, McLanahan SM, Kirkeeide RL, Brand RJ, Gould KL: Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial. Lancet 1990, 336(8708):129-133;
In a prospective, randomised, controlled trial to determine whether comprehensive lifestyle changes affect coronary atherosclerosis after 1 year, 28 patients were assigned to an experimental group (low-fat vegetarian diet, stopping smoking, stress management training, and moderate exercise) and 20 to a usual-care control group. 195 coronary artery lesions were analysed by quantitative coronary angiography. The average percentage diameter stenosis regressed from 40.0 (SD 16.9)% to 37.8 (16.5)% in the experimental group yet progressed from 42.7 (15.5)% to 46.1 (18.5)% in the control group. When only lesions greater than 50% stenosed were analysed, the average percentage diameter stenosis regressed from 61.1 (8.8)% to 55.8 (11.0)% in the experimental group and progressed from 61.7 (9.5)% to 64.4 (16.3)% in the control group. Overall, 82% of experimental-group patients had an average change towards regression. Comprehensive lifestyle changes may be able to bring about regression of even severe coronary atherosclerosis after only 1 year, without use of lipid-lowering drugs.
- Appleby PN, Davey GK, Key TJ: Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans in EPIC-Oxford. Public Health Nutr 2002, 5(5):645-654;
There were significant differences in the age-adjusted prevalence of self-reported HTN among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans for both men and women. Meat eaters had the highest and vegans the lowest prevalence of HTN, with fish eaters and vegetarians taking intermediate values
In the Western population, non-meat eaters, especially vegans, had a lower age-adjusted prevalence of self-reported HTN and a lower BP than did meat eaters. These differences were largely attritbutable to the lower BMI of the non-meat eaters.
Objective: To compare the prevalence of self-reported hypertension and mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures in four diet groups (meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans) and to investigate dietary and other lifestyle factors that might account for any differences observed between the groups. Design: Analysis of cross-sectional data from participants in the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). Setting: United Kingdom.
Subjects: Eleven thousand and four British men and women aged 20-78 years at blood pressure measurement.
Results: The age-adjusted prevalence of self-reported hypertension was significantly different between the four diet groups, ranging from 15.0% in male meat eaters to 5.8% in male vegans, and from 12.1% in female meat eaters to 7.7% in female vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians having similar and intermediate prevalences. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly different between the four diet groups, with meat eaters having the highest values and vegans the lowest values.
The differences in age-adjusted mean blood pressure between meat eaters and vegans among participants with no self-reported hypertension were 4.2 and 2.6 mmHg systolic and 2.8 and 1.7 mmHg diastolic for men and women, respectively. Much of the variation was attributable to differences in body mass index between the diet groups.
Conclusions: Non-meat eaters, especially vegans, have a lower prevalence of hypertension and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressures than meat eaters, largely because of differences in body mass index.
- Dean Ornish, MD; Larry W. Scherwitz, PhD; James H. Billings, PhD, MPH; K. Lance Gould, MD; Terri A. Merritt, MS; Stephen Sparler, MA; William T. Armstrong, MD; Thomas A. Ports, MD; Richard L. Kirkeeide, PhD; Charissa Hogeboom, PhD; Richard J. Brand, PhD: Intensive Lifestyle Changes for Reversal of Coronary Heart Disease. JAMA. 1998;280(23):2001-2007. doi:10.1001/jama.280.23.2001.
Context.— The Lifestyle Heart Trial demonstrated that intensive lifestyle changes may lead to regression of coronary atherosclerosis after 1 year.
Objectives.— To determine the feasibility of patients to sustain intensive lifestyle changes for a total of 5 years and the effects of these lifestyle changes (without lipid-lowering drugs) on coronary heart disease.
Design.— Randomized controlled trial conducted from 1986 to 1992 using a randomized invitational design.
Patients.— Forty-eight patients with moderate to severe coronary heart disease were randomized to an intensive lifestyle change group or to a usual-care control group, and 35 completed the 5-year follow-up quantitative coronary arteriography.
Setting.— Two tertiary care university medical centers.
Intervention.— Intensive lifestyle changes (10% fat whole foods vegetarian diet, aerobic exercise, stress management training, smoking cessation, group psychosocial support) for 5 years.
Main Outcome Measures.— Adherence to intensive lifestyle changes, changes in coronary artery percent diameter stenosis, and cardiac events.
Results.— Experimental group patients (20 [71%] of 28 patients completed 5-year follow-up) made and maintained comprehensive lifestyle changes for 5 years, whereas control group patients (15 [75%] of 20 patients completed 5-year follow-up) made more moderate changes. In the experimental group, the average percent diameter stenosis at baseline decreased 1.75 absolute percentage points after 1 year (a 4.5% relative improvement) and by 3.1 absolute percentage points after 5 years (a 7.9% relative improvement). In contrast, the average percent diameter stenosis in the control group increased by 2.3 percentage points after 1 year (a 5.4% relative worsening) and by 11.8 percentage points after 5 years (a 27.7% relative worsening) (P=.001 between groups. Twenty-five cardiac events occurred in 28 experimental group patients vs 45 events in 20 control group patients during the 5-year follow-up (risk ratio for any event for the control group, 2.47 [95% confidence interval, 1.48-4.20]).
Conclusions.— More regression of coronary atherosclerosis occurred after 5 years than after 1 year in the experimental group. In contrast, in the control group, coronary atherosclerosis continued to progress and more than twice as many cardiac events occurred.
- S. Tonstad, K. Stewart, K. Oda, M. Batech, R.P. Herring, G.E. Fraser: Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 23, Issue 4 , Pages 292-299, April 2013
Abstract Aim. To evaluate the relationship of diet to incident diabetes among non-Black and Black participants in the Adventist Health Study-2.
Methods and Results. Participants were 15,200 men and 26,187 women (17.3% Blacks) across the U.S. and Canada who were free of diabetes and who provided demographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and dietary data. Participants were grouped as vegan, lacto ovo vegetarian, pesco vegetarian, semi-vegetarian or non-vegetarian (reference group). A follow-up questionnaire after two years elicited information on the development of diabetes. Cases of diabetes developed in 0.54% of vegans, 1.08% of lacto ovo vegetarians, 1.29% of pesco vegetarians, 0.92% of semi-vegetarians and 2.12% of non-vegetarians. Blacks had an increased risk compared to non-Blacks (odds ratio [OR] 1.364; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.093–1.702). In multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender, education, income, television watching, physical activity, sleep, alcohol use, smoking and BMI, vegans (OR 0.381; 95% CI 0.236–0.617), lacto ovo vegetarians (OR 0.618; 95% CI 0.503–0.760) and semi-vegetarians (OR 0.486, 95% CI 0.312–0.755) had a lower risk of diabetes than non-vegetarians. In non-Blacks vegan, lacto ovo and semi-vegetarian diets were protective against diabetes (OR 0.429, 95% CI 0.249–0.740; OR 0.684, 95% CI 0.542–0.862; OR 0.501, 95% CI 0.303–0.827); among Blacks vegan and lacto ovo vegetarian diets were protective (OR 0.304, 95% CI 0.110–0.842; OR 0.472, 95% CI 0.270–0.825). These associations were strengthened when BMI was removed from the analyses.
Conclusion.Vegetarian diets (vegan, lacto ovo, semi-) were associated with a substantial and independent reduction in diabetes incidence. In Blacks the dimension of the protection associated with vegetarian diets was as great as the excess risk associated with Black ethnicity.
- Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, Turner-McGrievy G, Gloede L, Green A, Ferdowsian H: A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2009, 89(5):1588S-1596S;
BACKGROUND: Low-fat vegetarian and vegan diets are associated with weight loss, increased insulin sensitivity, and improved cardiovascular health.
OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of a low-fat vegan diet and conventional diabetes diet recommendations on glycemia, weight, and plasma lipids.
DESIGN: Free-living individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet (n = 49) or a diet following 2003 American Diabetes Association guidelines (conventional, n = 50) for 74 wk. Glycated hemoglobin (Hb A(1c)) and plasma lipids were assessed at weeks 0, 11, 22, 35, 48, 61, and 74. Weight was measured at weeks 0, 22, and 74.
RESULTS: Weight loss was significant within each diet group but not significantly different between groups (-4.4 kg in the vegan group and -3.0 kg in the conventional diet group, P = 0.25) and related significantly to Hb A(1c) changes (r = 0.50, P = 0.001). Hb A(1c) changes from baseline to 74 wk or last available values were -0.34 and -0.14 for vegan and conventional diets, respectively (P = 0.43). Hb A(1c) changes from baseline to last available value or last value before any medication adjustment were -0.40 and 0.01 for vegan and conventional diets, respectively (P = 0.03). In analyses before alterations in lipid-lowering medications, total cholesterol decreased by 20.4 and 6.8 mg/dL in the vegan and conventional diet groups, respectively (P = 0.01); LDL cholesterol decreased by 13.5 and 3.4 mg/dL in the vegan and conventional groups, respectively (P = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: Both diets were associated with sustained reductions in weight and plasma lipid concentrations. In an analysis controlling for medication changes, a low-fat vegan diet appeared to improve glycemia and plasma lipids more than did conventional diabetes diet recommendations. Whether the observed differences provide clinical benefit for the macro- or microvascular complications of diabetes remains to be established. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00276939.
- Bartok CJ, Ventura AK: Mechanisms underlying the association between breastfeeding and obesity. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity 2009;
Decades of epidemiological research have established that breastfeeding is associated with a modest reduction in risk of later overweight and obesity. However, no systematic effort has been made to delineate the mechanisms that may explain this association. This review summarizes evidence from a variety of disciplines to understand the potential mechanisms underlying this association. One possibility is that this association is spurious and that confounding factors fully or partially explain this association. Additionally, breastfeeding could confer protection by: encouraging the infant’s emerging capabilities of self-regulation of intake; reducing problematic feeding behaviors on the part of caregivers that interfere with the infant’s self-regulation of intake; and providing bioactive factors that regulate energy intake, energy expenditure, and cellular chemistry. These three protective effects may promote slower growth and lower body fat levels in breastfed infants, which reduce risk of overweight and obesity later in life.
- Vegetarian Diets and the Incidence of Cancer in a Low-risk Population 2013
Yessenia Tantamango-Bartley1, Karen Jaceldo-Siegl1,2,Jing Fan1, andGary Fraser1
Background: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Dietary factors account for at least 30% of all cancers in Western countries. As people do not consume individual foods but rather combinations of them, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and cancer risk.
Methods: We examined the association between dietary patterns (non-vegetarians, lacto, pesco, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and the overall cancer incidence among 69,120 participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. Cancer cases were identified by matching to cancer registries. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was conducted to estimate hazard ratios, with “attained age” as the time variable.
Results: A total of 2,939 incident cancer cases were identified. The multivariate HR of overall cancer risk among vegetarians compared with non-vegetarians was statistically significant [HR, 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85–0.99] for both genders combined. Also, a statistically significant association was found between vegetarian diet and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63–0.90). When analyzing the association of specific vegetarian dietary patterns, vegan diets showed statistically significant protection for overall cancer incidence (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72–0.99) in both genders combined and for female-specific cancers (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.47–0.92). Lacto-ovo-vegetarians appeared to be associated with decreased risk of cancers of the gastrointestinal system (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60–0.92).
Conclusion: Vegetarian diets seem to confer protection against cancer.
Impact: Vegan diet seems to confer lower risk for overall and female-specific cancer than other dietary patterns. The lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets seem to confer protection from cancers of the gastrointestinal tract.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 22(2); 286–94. ©2012 AACR.
This article is featured in Highlights of This Issue, p. 179
Received September 12, 2012.
Revision received November 11, 2012.
Accepted November 13, 2012.
©2012 American Association for Cancer Research.
- Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in the California Teachers Study cohort.
Authors Link LB, et al. Show all
Journal Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Dec;98(6):1524-32. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.061184. Epub 2013 Oct 9.
BACKGROUND: Evidence that diet is associated with breast cancer risk is inconsistent. Most studies have examined risks associated with specific foods and nutrients, rather than measures of overall diet.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate dietary patterns and their relation to breast cancer risk in a large cohort of women.
DESIGN: Data from 91,779 women in the California Teachers Study cohort were analyzed, including data from 4140 women with a diagnosis of invasive breast cancer made between 1995 and 2009. Five predominant dietary patterns were identified by using principal components factor analysis: a plant-based diet, high in fruit and vegetables; a high-protein, high-fat diet, high in meats, eggs, fried foods, and high-fat condiments; a high-carbohydrate diet, high in convenience foods, pasta, and bread products; an ethnic diet, high in legumes, soy-based foods, rice, and dark-green leafy vegetables; and a salad and wine diet, high in lettuce, fish, wine, low-fat salad dressing, and coffee and tea.
RESULTS: The plant-based pattern was associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk (RR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.95 for the highest compared with the lowest consumption quintile; P-trend = 0.003); risk reduction was greater for estrogen receptor-negative progesterone receptor-negative (ER-PR-) tumors (RR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.91; P-trend = 0.03). The salad and wine pattern was associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive progesterone receptor-positive tumors (RR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.49); this effect was only slightly attenuated after adjustment for alcohol consumption.
CONCLUSION: The finding that greater consumption of a plant-based dietary pattern is associated with a reduced breast cancer risk, particularly for ER-PR- tumors, offers a potential avenue for prevention.
- Thorogood M, Mann J, Appleby P, McPherson K: Risk of death from cancer and ischaemic heart disease in meat and non-meat eaters. BMJ 1994, 308(6945):1667-1670;
OBJECTIVE–To investigate the health consequences of a vegetarian diet by examining the 12 year mortality of non-meat eaters and meat eating controls.
DESIGN–Prospective observational study in which members of the non-meat eating cohort were asked to nominate friends or relatives as controls. SETTING–United Kingdom.
SUBJECTS–6115 non-meat eaters identified through the Vegetarian Society of the United Kingdom and the news media (mean (SD) age 38.7 (16.8) years) and 5015 controls who were meat eaters (39.3 (15.4) years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES–Standardised mortality ratios for cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and total mortality in the two cohorts and death rate ratio in the non-meat eaters compared with meat eaters after adjustment for potentially confounding variables.
RESULTS–Standardised mortality ratios (taking the value among the general population as 100) for ischaemic heart disease were 51 (95% confidence interval 38 to 66) for meat eaters and 28 (20 to 38) for non-meat eaters (P < 0.01). Values for all cancers were 80 (64 to 98) and 50 (39 to 62) for meat eaters and non-meat eaters respectively. After adjustment for the effects of smoking, body mass index, and socioeconomic status death rate ratios in non-meat eaters compared with meat eaters were 0.72 (0.47 to 1.10) for ischaemic heart disease and 0.61 (0.44 to 0.84) for all cancers.
CONCLUSIONS–The reduced mortality from cancer among those not eating meat is not explained by lifestyle related risk factors, which have a low prevalence among vegetarians. No firm conclusion can be made about deaths from ischaemic heart disease. These data do not justify advice to exclude meat from the diet since there are several attributes of a vegetarian diet apart from not eating meat which might reduce the risk.
Les hele studien her http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2540657/
- Chang-Claude J, Frentzel-Beyme R: Dietary and lifestyle determinants of mortality among German vegetarians. Int J Epidemiol 1993, 22(2):228-236;
- Chang-Claude J, Frentzel-Beyme R, Eilber U: Mortality pattern of German vegetarians after 11 years of follow-up. Epidemiology 1992, 3(5):395-401;
A cohort of 1,904 vegetarians and persons leading a health-conscious life-style in the Federal Republic of Germany was identified in 1978. After a follow-up of 11 years, mortality from all causes was reduced by one-half compared with the general population [the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 0.44 for men, 0.53 for women]. Among the 858 men, 111 deaths were observed, with 255 expected; among the 1,046 women, 114 deaths were observed, with 215 expected. The lowest mortality was found for cardiovascular diseases (SMR = 0.39 for men, 0.46 for women); in particular, for ischemic heart diseases, mortality was reduced to one-third of that expected. Cancer mortality was reduced by one-half in men (SMR = 0.48), but only by one-quarter in women (SMR = 0.74). The deficit in cancer deaths was mainly observed for lung cancer and gastrointestinal cancers in males and for gastrointestinal cancers in females. Deaths from diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems were also reduced by about 50%. An excess of deaths occurred only for anemia. When the strict and the moderate vegetarians were analyzed separately, the strongest differential was found for ischemic heart diseases, which were much less frequent among strict vegetarians for both sexes. Some nondietary factors, such as higher socioeconomic status, virtual absence of smoking, and lower body mass index, may also have contributed to the lower mortality of the study participants.
- Key TJ, Appleby PN, Spencer EA, Travis RC, Roddam AW, Allen NE: Mortality in British vegetarians: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). Am J Clin Nutr 2009, 89(5):1613S-1619S;
BACKGROUND:Few prospective studies have examined the mortality of vegetarians.OBJECTIVE:We present results on mortality among vegetarians and nonvegetarians in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford).DESIGN:We used a prospective study of men and women recruited throughout the United Kingdom in the 1990s.RESULTS:Among 64,234 participants aged 20-89 y for whom diet group was known, 2965 had died before age 90 by 30 June 2007. The death rates of participants are much lower than average for the United Kingdom. The standardized mortality ratio for all causes of death was 52% (95% CI: 50%, 54%) and was identical in vegetarians and in nonvegetarians. Comparing vegetarians with meat eaters among the 47,254 participants who had no prevalent cardiovascular disease or malignant cancer at recruitment, the death rate ratios adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol consumption were 0.81 (95% CI: 0.57, 1.16) for ischemic heart disease and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.16) for all causes of death.
CONCLUSIONS:The mortality of both the vegetarians and the nonvegetarians in this study is low compared with national rates. Within the study, mortality from circulatory diseases and all causes is not significantly different between vegetarians and meat eaters, but the study is not large enough to exclude small or moderate differences for specific causes of death, and more research on this topic is required.
- Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M, Appleby PN, Beral V, Reeves G, Burr ML, Chang-Claude J, Frentzel-Beyme R, Kuzma JW, Mann J, McPherson K: Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr 1999, 70(3 Suppl):516S-524S;
We combined data from 5 prospective studies to compare the death rates from common diseases of vegetarians with those of nonvegetarians with similar lifestyles. A summary of these results was reported previously; we report here more details of the findings. Data for 76172 men and women were available. Vegetarians were those who did not eat any meat or fish (n = 27808). Death rate ratios at ages 16-89 y were calculated by Poisson regression and all results were adjusted for age, sex, and smoking status. A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled estimates of effect for all studies combined. There were 8330 deaths after a mean of 10.6 y of follow-up. Mortality from ischemic heart disease was 24% lower in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians (death rate ratio: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.94; P<0.01). The lower mortality from ischemic heart disease among vegetarians was greater at younger ages and was restricted to those who had followed their current diet for >5 y. Further categorization of diets showed that, in comparison with regular meat eaters, mortality from ischemic heart disease was 20% lower in occasional meat eaters, 34% lower in people who ate fish but not meat, 34% lower in lactoovovegetarians, and 26% lower in vegans. There were no significant differences between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in mortality from cerebrovascular disease, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, or all other causes combined.
- Frentzel-Beyme R, Claude J, Eilber U: Mortality among German vegetarians: first results after five years of follow-up. Nutr Cancer 1988, 11(2):117-126;
A prospective study of vegetarians recruited from all regions of the Federal Republic of Germany, including West Berlin, was started in 1978 after a preparatory phase of two years in which the cohort was established. The mortality of the 1,904 study participants was evaluated after a follow-up of five years, comparing observed deaths with expected rates based on the national mortality statistics. Of the 858 men and 1,046 women, 89% had followed their diet for at least five years at study entry, the majority of them as strict vegetarians (1,163). By the end of 1983, only 82 persons had died, whereas 219 deaths were expected. In both sexes, the mortality was lowest from cardiovascular diseases [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for ischemic heart disease about 20] and from cancer (SMR 58 for men, 54 for women). Deaths from diseases of the respiratory and digestive system were also reduced.
For individual cancer sites the observed numbers were extremely small, but the risk of dying from lung cancer was significantly reduced; however, deaths from cancers of the colon and rectum, prostate, and breast were rare or even absent. More deaths than expected were observed from stomach, pancreatic, testicular, and brain cancers.
An internal comparison of mortality between strict and moderate vegetarians (741) suggests a higher mortality from all causes and malignant neoplasms among strict vegetarians in both sexes, although not statistically significant, and a lower mortality from circulatory system diseases for males. The possible influence of selection factors (e.g., «healthy participant effect,» socioeconomic level, and body weight) on the findings of a decreased mortality is discussed together with the role of diet.
- Beezhold BL, Johnston CS, Daigle DR: Vegetarian diets are associated with healthy mood states: a cross-sectional study in seventh day adventist adults. Nutr J 2010, 9:26
The physical health status of vegetarians has been extensively reported, but there is limited research regarding the mental health status of vegetarians, particularly with regard to mood. Vegetarian diets exclude fish, the major dietary source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), critical regulators of brain cell structure and function. Omnivorous diets low in EPA and DHA are linked to impaired mood states in observational and experimental studies.
We examined associations between mood state and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake as a result of adherence to a vegetarian or omnivorous diet in a cross-sectional study of 138 healthy Seventh Day Adventist men and women residing in the Southwest. Participants completed a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaires.
Vegetarians (VEG:n = 60) reported significantly less negative emotion than omnivores (OMN:n = 78) as measured by both mean total DASS and POMS scores (8.32 +/- 0.88 vs 17.51 +/- 1.88, p = .000 and 0.10 +/- 1.99 vs 15.33 +/- 3.10, p = .007, respectively). VEG reported significantly lower mean intakes of EPA (p < .001), DHA (p < .001), as well as the omega-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid (AA; p < .001), and reported higher mean intakes of shorter-chain alpha-linolenic acid (p < .001) and linoleic acid (p < .001) than OMN. Mean total DASS and POMS scores were positively related to mean intakes of EPA (p < 0.05), DHA (p < 0.05), and AA (p < 0.05), and inversely related to intakes of ALA (p < 0.05), and LA (p < 0.05), indicating that participants with low intakes of EPA, DHA, and AA and high intakes of ALA and LA had better mood.
CONCLUSIONS:The vegetarian diet profile does not appear to adversely affect mood despite low intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20515497
Divertikkler i tykktarmen
- Francesca L Crowe nutritional epidemiologist , Paul N Appleby senior statistician , Naomi E Allen epidemiologist , Timothy J Key professor of epidemiology Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK
Diet and risk of diverticular disease in Oxford cohort of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): prospective study of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians
BMJ. 2011; 343: d4131. Published online 2011 July 19. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d4131
Abstract Objective To examine the associations of a vegetarian diet and dietary fibre intake with risk of diverticular disease.
Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The EPIC-Oxford study, a cohort of mainly health conscious participants recruited from around the United Kingdom.
Participants 47 033 men and women living in England or Scotland of whom 15 459 (33%) reported consuming a vegetarian diet. Main outcome measures Diet group was assessed at baseline; intake of dietary fibre was estimated from a 130 item validated food frequency questionnaire. Cases of diverticular disease were identified through linkage with hospital records and death certificates. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the risk of diverticular disease by diet group and fifths of intake of dietary fibre were estimated with multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models.
Results. After a mean follow-up time of 11.6 years, there were 812 cases of diverticular disease (806 admissions to hospital and six deaths). After adjustment for confounding variables, vegetarians had a 31% lower risk (relative risk 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.55 to 0.86) of diverticular disease compared with meat eaters. The cumulative probability of admission to hospital or death from diverticular disease between the ages of 50 and 70 for meat eaters was 4.4% compared with 3.0% for vegetarians. There was also an inverse association with dietary fibre intake; participants in the highest fifth (≥25.5 g/day for women and ≥26.1 g/day for men) had a 41% lower risk (0.59, 0.46 to 0.78; P<0.001 trend) compared with those in the lowest fifth (<14 g/day for both women and men). After mutual adjustment, both a vegetarian diet and a higher intake of fibre were significantly associated with a lower risk of diverticular disease.
Conclusions Consuming a vegetarian diet and a high intake of dietary fibre were both associated with a lower risk of admission to hospital or death from diverticular disease
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Frentzel-Beyme R, Claude J, Eilber U: Mortality among German vegetarians: first results after five years of follow-up. Nutr Cancer 1988, 11(2):117-126;
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Professor i ernæring Helle Margrete Meltzer:
«Sunn vegetarkost er sunnere enn det gjennomsnittlige norske kostholdet.» » Problemet er bare at en usunn vegetarkost er verre enn å spise usunn blandingskost. Det er en av årsakene til at myndighetene i utgangspunktet råder oss til å spise variert med innslag av kjøtt og fisk.»
Kilde: Intervju med NRK 03.02.2010 Meltzer er medforfatter av Helsedirektoratets hefte med kostholdsråd til vegetarianere.
«It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. (…) The results of an evidence-based review showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with a lower risk of death from ischemic heart disease. Vegetarians also appear to have lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure, and lower rates of hypertension and type 2 diabetes than nonvegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians tend to have a lower body mass index and lower overall cancer rates.»
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Amerikansk forening for ernæringsfysiologer)
22) (Michael J. Orlich, MD1; Pramil N Singh, DrPH1; Joan Sabaté, MD, DrPH1,2; Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, DrPH1,2; Jing Fan, MS1; Synnove Knutsen, MD, PhD1,2; W. Lawrence Beeson, DrPH1; Gary E. Fraser, MBchB, PhD1,2: Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and Mortality in Adventist Health Study 2. JAMA Intern Med.
Cancer Research Fund http://www.wcrf-uk.org/cancer_prevention/recommendations/meat_and_cancer.php
Doris S. M. Chan, Rosa Lau, Dagfinn Aune, Rui Vieira, Darren C. Greenwood, Ellen Kampman, and Teresa Norat: Red and Processed Meat and Colorectal Cancer Incidence: Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3108955/