Proteinrik mat og trening

proteiner i mat og trening

Proteiner i mat og trening: Kan protein behovet dekkes gjennom et hovedsakelig plantebasert kosthold?

Tilstrekkelig proteininntak er viktig ved trening, både for kroppsbyggere og utholdenhetsutøvere. Animalske produkter, i tillegg til å være gode proteinkilder, inneholder ofte mye mettet fett, transfett, kolesterol og en del kreftfremkallende stoffer. Kjøtt, kylling, egg og meieriprodukter mangler samtidig bl.a. vitamin C og fiber.

Helsemyndighetene anbefaler å spise mindre kjøtt og mindre av fete meieriprodukter, og sier at kostholdet hovedsakelig bør være plantebasert. Plantebasert kosthold har flere helsemessige fordeler. Et balansert plantebasert kosthold kan samtidig dekke behovet for protein og andre næringsstoffer (unntatt vitamin B12 og vitamin D i vinterhalvåret) fullt ut. Bønner, nøtter, soyaprodukter og fullkorn er proteinrike matvarer som er vanlige kilder til protein i et plantebasert kosthold.

Proteinrik mat fra planteriket for idrettsutøvere?

Kan et hovedsakelig plantebasert kosthold, slik myndighetene anbefaler, med redusert inntak av animalske produkter og økt inntak av plantebaserte produkter dekke proteinbehovet for idrettsutøvere? Svaret er ja. Her er abstracts fra tre vitenskapelige artikler om plantebasert kosthold og trening.

1. Vegetarianism and Indian sports.

Shashikant Goswami, Br J Sports Med 2010;44:i40 doi:10.1136/bjsm.2010.078725.133

http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/44/Suppl_1/i40.4.abstract

«Abstract
The high performance diet has always been a matter of concern for the elite sports persons. The selection of right kind of food has an important role to play to achieve good health and high performance. In spite of being an oldest vegetarian country the Indian sports persons at elite level starts following the non-vegetarian foods to have high protein intake in their daily diet to gain muscle mass and strength.
Whereas, vegetable proteins, when combined, provide excellent protein and also numerous other nutrients such as phytochemicals and fibres that are highly regarded in the diet.»

Les hele artikkelen om proteininntak og plantebasert kosthold hos idrettsutøvere her http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/44/Suppl_1/i40.4.full.pdf

2. Vegetarian diets: nutritional considerations for athletes.

Venderley AM, Campbell WW. Source Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906-2059, USA. Sports Med. 2006;36(4):293-305. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16573356

«Abstract
The quality of vegetarian diets to meet nutritional needs and support peak performance among athletes continues to be questioned. Appropriately planned vegetarian diets can provide sufficient energy and an appropriate range of carbohydrate, fat and protein intakes to support performance and health. The acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges for carbohydrate, fat and protein of 45-65%, 20-35% and 10-35%, respectively, are appropriate for vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes alike, especially those who perform endurance events.
Vegetarian athletes can meet their protein needs from predominantly or exclusively plant-based sources when a variety of these foods are consumed daily and energy intake is adequate. Muscle creatine stores are lower in vegetarians than non-vegetarians.
Creatine supplementation provides ergogenic responses in both vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes, with limited data supporting greater ergogenic effects on lean body mass accretion and work performance for vegetarians.
The potential adverse effect of a vegetarian diet on iron status is based on the bioavailability of iron from plant foods rather than the amount of total iron present in the diet. Vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes alike must consume sufficient iron to prevent deficiency, which will adversely affect performance.
Other nutrients of concern for vegetarian athletes include zinc, vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), vitamin D (cholecalciferol) and calcium. The main sources of these nutrients are animal products; however, they can be found in many food sources suitable for vegetarians, including fortified soy milk and whole grain cereals. Vegetarians have higher antioxidant status for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (tocopherol), and beta-carotene than omnivores, which might help reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress. Research is needed comparing antioxidant defences in vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes.»

3. Nutritional considerations for vegetarian athletes.

Barr SI, Rideout CA. Source: University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. sibarr@interchange.ubc.ca

Nutrition. 2004 Jul-Aug;20(7-8):696-703.

«Abstract
With the growing interest in the potential health benefits of plant-based diets, it is relevant to consider whether vegetarian dietary practices could influence athletic performance. Accordingly, this review examines whether nutrients that may differ between vegetarian and omnivorous diets could affect physical performance. We also describe recent studies that attempt to assess the effects of a vegetarian diet on performance and comment on other nutritional aspects of vegetarianism of relevance to athletes. Although well-controlled long-term studies assessing the effects of vegetarian diets on athletes have not been conducted, the following observations can be made:
1) well-planned, appropriately supplemented vegetarian diets appear to effectively support athletic performance;
2) provided protein intakes are adequate to meet needs for total nitrogen and the essential amino acids, plant and animal protein sources appear to provide equivalent support to athletic training and performance;
3) vegetarians (particularly women) are at increased risk for non-anemic iron deficiency, which may limit endurance performance; and
4) as a group, vegetarians have lower mean muscle creatine concentrations than do omnivores, and this may affect supramaximal exercise performance. Because their initial muscle creatine concentrations are lower, vegetarians are likely to experience greater performance increments after creatine loading in activities that rely on the adenosine triphosphate/phosphocreatine system.
5) Coaches and trainers should be aware that some athletes may adopt a vegetarian diet as a strategy for weight control. Accordingly, the possibility of a disordered eating pattern should be investigated if a vegetarian diet is accompanied by unwarranted weight loss.»
 

Les om sunne vegetabilske kilder til protein

Les også om jern og kalsium i vegetarisk kosthold

Les mer om proteiner og proteinrike matvarer

 
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3 Responses to Proteinrik mat og trening

  1. Tilbaketråkk: Sunnere kylling og istedenfor kylling | Er det sunt?

  2. Tilbaketråkk: Proteinrik mat – kylling eller kikerter? | Er det sunt?

  3. Tilbaketråkk: Sunnhetstips i januar | Er det sunt?

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